What is 3D printing technology ?
3D printing is a kind of rapid prototyping technology. It is a technology based on digital model files, using powder-like metal or plastic and other adhesive materials to construct objects by printing layer by layer. Digital material printers are usually used to achieve this. The videos of 3D printing technology that we often see on the Internet are amazing. A little shoe, a beautiful drinking glass, a chair, a table, etc., and even a house, with 3D printing technology. Quietly, since then, 3D printing has gradually become known. What are the 3D printing technologies, today I will explain in detail for everyone:
1.Laser selective sintering / melting (SLS / SLM)
3D printing technology-laser selective sintering / melting (SLS / SLM). The idea of SLM was originally proposed by the German Fraunhofer Institute in 1995. The principle of SLS and SLM is more similar to 3D printing technology, and the adhesive is replaced by a laser beam. Before the high power density laser laser beam starts scanning, the horizontal powder spreading roller will first spread the metal powder on the substrate of the processing room, and then the laser beam will selectively melt the powder on the substrate according to the contour information of the current layer to process the current The outline of the layer is then transferred to the next layer for processing. This layer is processed until the entire part is processed.
Main material: plastic, wax, ceramic, metal, etc.
Advantages: Complex parts can be prepared without support.
Disadvantages: Due to the problem of the laying density of the adhesive, the density of some 3D technical products is not high.
2.Three-dimensional printing process (3DP)
3D printing technology-3D printing process (3DP) is also known as adhesive jet, inkjet powder printing. This 3D printing technology works most closely with traditional two-dimensional inkjet printing. Like the SLS process, 3DP technology also makes parts by bonding powders as a whole, but it is not bonded by laser melting, but by the adhesive sprayed by the nozzle to complete the bonding work.
As one of the 3D printing technologies, 3DP technology is one of the most promising rapid prototyping technologies after SLS, FDM and other widely used rapid prototyping technologies. 3DP technology has attracted the attention of many excellent companies in the 3D printing industry.
Main material: quartz sand, ceramic powder, gypsum powder and other powder consumables
Advantages: no need for high-cost components such as lasers, low cost, easy operation and maintenance; fast processing speed; relatively cheap prices for consumables and forming materials, and low printing costs.
Disadvantages: The development time is short, and foreign monopolies of related technologies are more serious.
3. Fused Deposition Molding (FDM)
3D printing technology-Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). FDM is short for "Fused Deposition Modeling", that is, fused deposition molding. This 3D printing technology was successfully developed by American scholar Scott Crump in 1988. To understand the FDM technology in popular terms, it is to use high temperature to melt the material into a liquid, spray it through a nozzle that can move in the X-Y direction, and finally arrange it in a three-dimensional space to form a three-dimensional physical object.
Main materials: polypropylene, ABS casting paraffin, etc.
Advantages: low cost, simple structure, high utilization efficiency of raw materials.
Disadvantages: The molding speed is relatively slow, the nozzle is prone to blockage, and it is inconvenient to maintain.
4.Light-curing rapid prototyping technology (SLA)
3D printing technology-Light-curing rapid prototyping technology (SLA). SLA three-dimensional lithography technology uses photosensitive resin as the raw material, and controls the laser to scan the surface of the liquid photosensitive resin on the surface of the liquid photosensitive resin according to the layered cross-section information of the part through a computer-controlled laser. A thin layer. After the curing of one layer is completed, the workbench is moved down a distance of a layer thickness, and then a new layer of liquid resin is applied on the surface of the previously cured resin until a three-dimensional solid model is obtained. This method has fast forming speed, high degree of automation, can form any complex shape, and high dimensional accuracy. It is mainly used for the rapid forming of complex and high-precision fine workpieces.
Main material: liquid photosensitive resin, etc.
Advantages: high molding accuracy; good density after sintering.
Disadvantages: troublesome follow-up processing; serious secondary curing problems.
3D printing technology is mainly used in industrial industries. Industrial-grade 3D printing usually means larger printing sizes, higher accuracy requirements, and high requirements for materials and technology. Although the current market gap for industrial 3D printing is so huge, it also takes longer to complete the reform of traditional manufacturing.